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Required Readings for New instructor’s Theory Competency

Theories that Contribute to the Conceptual Framework and PROMPT Development

Updated - June 11, 2012


Please note that New Instructor Trainees are required to read articles 1-17, 19, 20, 23-28 and 32-39.


Structural/Physical-Sensory Domain

1 - Guenther, F. (2006). Cortical Interactions underlying the production of speech sounds. Journal of Communication Disorders. 39:350-365.


2 - Kass, J. (2004).Plasticity of somatosensory and motor systems in developing and mature primate brains. In Stockman, I. (Ed.) Movement and Action in Learning and Development:  Clinical Implications for Pervasive Developmental Disorders. (pp.117-138) Elsevier-Academic Press, San Diego.


3 - (Deleted)


4 - Kent R.D. (1981).  Sensorimotor aspects of speech development. In Aslin R, Alberts, J, Peterson M (eds):Development of Perception, pp161-189.      Academic Press, New York.


5 - Kent RD. (1992). The biology of phonological development. In Ferguson CA, Menn L, Stoel-Gammon C (eds):Phonological development (pp 65-89). York Press, Maryland.


6 - Kent, R. (2004).  Models of speech motor control-implications from recent developments in neurophysiological and neurobehavioral science. In Maassen, B. Hultsihn, W., Kent, R.D., Peters, H.F.M., & van Lieshout, P. H. M. (Eds).Speech Motor Control in Normal and Disordered Speech. London: Oxford Press.


7 - (Deleted)


8 - Mass, E., Robin, D., Shannon, N., Gabriele, W., Kirrie, J., Schmidt, R. (2008). Principles of Motor Learning in Treatment of Motor Speech Disorders. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. 17:277-298.


9 - Mysak , E. ( 1968).  Neuroevolutional Approach to Cerebral Palsy and Speech. Teachers College Press. pp5-7. Columbia University New York.


10 - Schmidt,R.A.(1975). A schema theory of discrete motor skill learning. Psychological Review; 82 (4):225-260.


11 - Sporns, O. & Edelman, G. (1993). Solving Bernstein’s problem: a proposal for the development of coordinated movement by selection. Child Development, 64, 4, pp.-960-981.

Cognitive-Linguistic Domain


12 - Thelen, E.(1991).  Motor aspects of emergent speech: a dynamic approach . In  N. A. Krasnegor & D. Rumaugh (Eds.). Biological and behavioral determinants of language development, pp 339- 362. Hillsdale, N.J. : L. Erlbaum.


13 - Thelen, E. (1995). Motor development: a new synthesis. American Piaget, J. Psychologist. 50 (2) 79-95.


14 - Nelson, K. (2004).  The event basis of conceptual and language development.  In Stockman, I. (Ed.) Movement and Action in Learning and Development:  Clinical Implications for Pervasive Developmental Disorders. (pp.117-138) Elsevier-Academic Press, San Diego.


15 - Bates, K & MacWhinney, B. (1987).  Competition, Variation and Language Learning.

15a - Locke, John L., A Theory of Neurolinguistic Development, BRAIN AND LANGUAGE 58, 265–326  (1997)ARTICLE NO. BL971791.

15b - Thelen, E. (2004) The Central Role of Action in Typical and Atypical Development: A Dynamic Systems Perspective.


Social-Emotional Domain


16 - Wetherby, A. (1991).  Profiling pragmatic abilities in the emerging language of young children.  In T. Gallagher (Ed.), Pragmatics of language:  clinical practice issues. (pp. 249-282).  San Diego: Singular Publishing.


17 - Bloom, L. (2004).  The integration of expression into the stream of everyday activity.   In Stockman, I. (Ed.)Movement and Action in Learning and Development:  Clinical Implications for Pervasive Developmental Disorders.(pp.139-168) Elsevier-Academic Press, San Diego.

PROMPT Development



All PROMPT chapters and research are necessary reading but those in bold are critical for the Instructor workshop.


18 - Bose, A., & Square, P.A. (2001, December).  PROMPT treatment method and apraxia of speech. SID2 Newsletter,1, 4, 5–8.


19 - Bose, A., Square, P. A., Schlosser, R., & van Lieshout, P. (2001). Effects of PROMPT therapy on speech motor function in a person with aphasia and apraxia of speech. Aphasiology, 15, 8, 767–785.

20 - Chumpelik, (Hayden) D.A. (1984). The Prompt System of Therapy: Theoretical Framework and Applications for Developmental Apraxia of Speech.  Seminars in Speech and Language, 5, 139-156.


21 - Dewey, D., Roy, E.A., Square-Storer, P.A. and Hayden, D. (1988) Limb and Oral Praxic Abilities of Children with Verbal Sequencing Deficits. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 30, 743-751Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 30-734-751


22 - Freed, D. B., Marshal, R. C., & Frazier, K. E. (1997). Long term effectiveness of PROMPT treatment in a severely apraxic-aphasic speaker. Aphasiology, 11(4/5), 365–342.

23 - Hayden, D.A., (1994). Differential Diagnosis of Motor Speech Dysfunction in Children. Clinics InCommunication Disorders,4, 119-142.


24 - Hayden, D.A., (1994). Motor Speech Treatment Hierarchy: A Systems Approach. Clinics InCommunication Disorders,4 (3)162-174.

25 - Hayden, D.A.  (2004). PROMPT: A tactually grounded treatment approach to speech production disorders. In I. Stockman (Ed.), Movement and action in learning and development: Clinical implications for pervasive developmental disorders (pp. 255–297). San Diego, CA: Elsevier–Academic Press.


26 - Hayden, D. (2006). The PROMPT Model: Use and application for children with mixed phonological-motor impairment. Advances in Speech Pathology, 8,3, 265-281.


27 - Hayden, D., Eigen, J., Walker, A. & Olsen, L. (2010). PROMPT: A tactually grounded model for the treatment of childhood speech production disorders.  In L. Williams, S. McLeod, R. McCauley (Eds.).Treatment for speech sound disorders in children. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Company.


28 - Hayden, D.A., Square,P.A. (1994). Motor Speech Treatment Hierarchy: A Systems Approach. Clinics InCommunication Disorders, 5, 162-175.


29 - Hayden, D. A. & Square, P. (1999). Verbal Motor Production Assessment for Children (VMPAC). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.


30 - Houghton, Margaret A. (2003, September). The effect of the PROMPT system of therapy on a group of children with severe persistent sound system disorders. Queensland, Australia: School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland. Available from PROMPT Institute Web site,


31 - McCauley, R. & Strand, E. (2008). A review of standardized tests of nonverbal oral and speech motor performance in children.  American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 17, 181-91.


32 - Grigos, M, Hayden, D. & Eigen, J. (2010). Perceptual and articulatory changes in speech production following PROMPT treatment. Journal of Medical Speech Pathology 18, 4, 46-53.


33 - Rogers, S. J., Hayden, D. Hepburn, S., Charlifue-Smith, R., Hall, T., & Hayes, A. (2006). Teaching young nonverbal children with autism useful speech: A pilot study of the Denver Model and PROMPT interventions.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 8, 1007–1024.


34 - Square, P. A., Chumpelik (Hayden), D.A., & Adams, S. G. (1985). Efficacy of the PROMPT system of therapy for the treatment of acquired apraxia of speech. In R. H. Brookshire (Ed.), Clinical aphasiology: Conference proceedings (pp. 319–320). Minneapolis, MN: BRK Publishers.

35 - Square, P.A., Chumpelik (Hayden), D.,A.  Morningstar, D., & Adams, S. G. (1986). Efficacy of the PROMPT system of therapy for the treatment of apraxia of speech: A follow-up investigation. In R. H. Brookshire (Ed.), Clinical aphasiology: Conference proceedings (pp. 221–226). Minneapolis, MN: BBK Publishers.

36 - Square-Storer, P., & Hayden, D. A.  (1989). PROMPT treatment. In P. Square-Storer (Ed.), Acquired apraxia of speech in aphasic adults (pp. 190-219). New York: Taylor and Francis.

37 - Square, P.A. (1999). Treatment of developmental apraxia of speech: Tactile-Kinesthetic, rhythmic, and Gestural approaches.  In A. Caruso and E. Strand (Eds.) Clinical Management of Motor Speech Disorders in Children.  New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, pp. 149-185.

38 - Square, P. A., Hayden, D.A. Ciolli, L., Wilkins, C., & Bose, A. (2001, June). Speech motor performances of children with moderate to severe articulation disorder. Proceedings of the Fourth International Speech Motor Conference, 237–240. Nijmegen, The Netherlands: Vantilt.


39 - Ward, R., Leitao, S, & Strauss, G. (2009). The effectiveness of PROMPT therapy for children with moderate-to-severe speech disorders associated with Cerebral Palsy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2009. 51. (Suppl. 5):76.



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